This crib sheet is a guide to the APA style. It is not intended to replace the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition. Only selected citations were chosen for inclusion here.For other examples see the printed Manual.Use this only as a reference.
Sahelian, R. (1999, January).Achoo!Better Nutrition, 61, p. 24.Retrieved September 17, 2001,
from Academic Index.
Because the information is not retrievable they should not appear in the reference list.They should look as follows:Example:J. Burnitz (personal communications,
September 20, 2000).
Reference Citations in Text
To refer to an item in the list of references from the text an author-date method should be used.That is, use the surname of the author (without suffixes) and the year of the publication in the text at appropriate points.
Issac (2001) indicated in his research..
In a recent study, research indicates (Isaac, 2001)
Two or more authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs. For works with three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.In subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by et al.
When a work has no authors
Cite in text the first few words of what appears first for the entry on the list (usually the title) and the year.
For more detailed information to illustrate the use of parenthetical citations, consult this University of Wisconsin page. http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocAPACitations.html
Some general rules for APA reference pages:
1.Begin the reference list on a new page.The page begins with the word References (Reference if there is only one), centered in the top, middle of the page, using both upper and lower case. If the references take up more than one page, do not re-type the word References on sequential pages, simply continue your list.
2.Use one space after all punctuation.
3.The first line of the reference is flush left.Lines thereafter are indented as a group, a few spaces, to create a hanging indention.
4.Double space between citations.Single space in the citations.
5.Use italics for titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and journals.
6.References cited in text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.
7.Arrange entries in alphabetical order
8.Give in parentheses the year the work was published.For magazines and newspapers, give the year followed by the month and date, if any.If no date is available, write n.d.
9.Give volume numbers for magazines, journals, and newsletters.Include the issue number for journals if and only if each issue begins on 1.
Please forward any comments or suggestions regarding
this crib sheet to Owen Williams
Prepared by Owen Williams, University of Minnesota, Crookston
Last updated September12, 2002