This crib sheet is a guide to the APA style. It is not intended to replace the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition. Only selected citations were chosen for inclusion here.For other examples see the printed Manual.Use this only as a reference. 


Journal Article, one author

Simon, A. (2000). Perceptual comparisons through the mindís eye. Memory & Cognition, 23

Journal Article, two authors

Becker, M. B., & Rozek, S. J. (1995). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 
32, 230-343.

Magazine Article, one author

Garner, H. J. (1997, July). Do babies have a universal song? Psychology Today,102, 70-77.

Newspaper article, no author

Study finds free care used more. (1982, April 3). Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A25.

Book, two authors

Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979).The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Edited book

Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education. New York: Praeger.

Entry in an Encyclopedia 

Imago. (2000). In World Book Encyclopedia (Vol. 10, p. 79).Chicago: World Book Encyclopedia.

Report From a Private Organization

Kimberly-Clark. (2002). Kimberly-Clark (Annual Report). Dallas, TX: Author.


Mass, J. B. (Producer), & Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into hypnosis. (Motion picture). 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Electronic Formats

Internet Article Based on Print Source

The citation is done as if it were a paper article and then followed by a retrieval statement that identifies the date retrieved and source.

Sahelian, R. (1999, January).Achoo!Better Nutrition, 61, p. 24.Retrieved September 17, 2001,

from Academic Index.

Web page, no author, no date

GVUís 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2001, from

Web page, no date

Thompson, G. (n.d.). Youth coach handbook.In Joe soccer. Retrieved September 17, 2001 from

Web page, Government author

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. (2001, March 14). Glacial habitat restoration areas. 

Retrieved September 18, 2001 


Web page, no author, no date

Eldorado. (n.d.). In September 18, 2001 from



Personal Communications

Personal communications may be things such as email messages, interviews, speeches, and telephone conversations.

Because the information is not retrievable they should not appear in the reference list.They should look as follows:Example:J. Burnitz (personal communications, 

September 20, 2000).


Reference Citations in Text

To refer to an item in the list of references from the text an author-date method should be used.That is, use the surname of the author (without suffixes) and the year of the publication in the text at appropriate points.

One author

Issac (2001) indicated in his research..

In a recent study, research indicates (Isaac, 2001)

Two or more authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs. For works with three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.In subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by et al.

When a work has no authors

Cite in text the first few words of what appears first for the entry on the list (usually the title) and the year.

For more detailed information to illustrate the use of parenthetical citations, consult this University of Wisconsin page.


Some general rules for APA reference pages:

1.Begin the reference list on a new page.The page begins with the word References (Reference if there is only one), centered in the top, middle of the page, using both upper and lower case. If the references take up more than one page, do not re-type the word References on sequential pages, simply continue your list.

2.Use one space after all punctuation.

3.The first line of the reference is flush left.Lines thereafter are indented as a group, a few spaces, to create a hanging indention.

4.Double space between citations.Single space in the citations.

5.Use italics for titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and journals.

6.References cited in text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.

7.Arrange entries in alphabetical order

8.Give in parentheses the year the work was published.For magazines and newspapers, give the year followed by the month and date, if any.If no date is available, write n.d.

9.Give volume numbers for magazines, journals, and newsletters.Include the issue number for journals if and only if each issue begins on 1.

Please forward any comments or suggestions regarding this crib sheet to Owen Williams
Prepared by Owen Williams, University of Minnesota, Crookston

Last updated September12, 2002

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