通訳研究 No. 7

目次  [オンラインアブストラクト]

Obituary / 追悼文
       Torikai Kumiko / 鳥飼 玖美子
西山千さんを偲ぶ
       鳥飼 玖美子
[特別講演]
The Origin and Challenges of Simultaneous Interpretation: The Nuremberg Trial Experience  [Full Paper: PDF]
       Siegfried Ramler

[論文]
法廷相互行為を通訳する 〜 法廷通訳人の役割再考
       吉田 理加
英日同時通訳者発話におけるフィラーの出現と聴きやすさとの関係
       遠山 仁美松原 茂樹
大規模音声コーパスを用いた日英・英日同時通訳における訳出遅延の比較分析
       小野 貴博遠山 仁美松原 茂樹
異文化コミュニケーション能力の修得プロセス 〜 通訳演習参加者の事例より
       新崎 隆子
逐次通訳の基本プロセスの検討
       ベルジュロ伊藤宏美
独英日間翻訳における「視点」の考察: Momo を題材に
       加藤 久佳
共同学習を導入した映像翻訳教育に関する考察
       稲生 衣代
スウェーデンの通訳人及び翻訳人公認制度についての研究
       津田 守
日本とアメリカ合衆国における「法廷通訳人」
       西松 鈴美
[研究ノート]
聞き手・話し手としての通訳者 〜 ミーティングにおける通訳場面の一考察
       瀧本 眞人
[実践報告]
e-learning を活用した実践的な翻訳教育の可能性 〜 オンライン・アクティビティを用いた諸事例を通して
       井上 泉
[調査報告]
北京語言大学日中同時通訳修士課程における通訳実習の特徴と課題
       岩本 明美
通訳クラス受講生たちの意識調査〜2007 年度実施・通訳教育分科会アンケートより  [Full Paper: PDF]
       田中深雪稲生衣代河原清志新崎隆子中村幸子
[書評]
Healthcare Interpreting: Discourse and Interaction
       渡部 富栄
Translation Technology and its Teaching (with much mention of localization)
       井上 泉
『通訳者と戦後日米外交』
       古家 聡
[エッセイ]
西山先生を悼む
       柴原 早苗
通訳者は言葉の変遷をどうとらえるべきか? 〜 The Unfolding of Language をめぐって
       柴原 早苗
[博士論文要旨]
逐次通訳におけるスピーチ理解の認知プロセス: ESIT日本語セクション訓練生の認知スキル習得について
       ベルジュロ伊藤宏美
Diplomatic Interpreters in Post-World War II Japan: Voices of the Invisible Presence in Foreign Relations
       Kumiko Machida Torikai

[活動報告]
コミュニティ通訳分科会第7回大会シンポジウム記録:「司法通訳にとっての等価性とは:正確な通訳の可能性と限界」
       コミュニティ通訳分科会
コミュニティ通訳分科会ミニシンポジウム記録:「司法通訳・翻訳の正確性について」
       コミュニティ通訳分科会
日本通訳学会第8回年次大会報告  [Full Paper: PDF]
       編集部  

Announcement & Information
原稿募集のお知らせ
第9回年次大会のお知らせと発表募集
通訳学会への入会申し込み
日本通訳学会規約
投稿規定
韓国国際会議通訳学会 学会誌への投稿要領
日本通訳学会組織構成
編集後記

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[編集委員会/Editorial Board]
染谷 泰正 (SOMEYA Yasumasa, Editor-in-chief)
水野 的 (MIZUNO Akira, Associate Editor)
永田 小絵 (NAGATA Sae, Associate Editor)
[Consulting Editors]
Daniel Gile, Peter Davidson, Robin Setton, Ryoko Winter
[査読委員/Referees]
9名(氏名非公開/ Anonymous)
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(発行日:2007年12月20日)


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Interpreting Court Interaction -- Redefining the Role of Court Interpreters
YOSHIDA Rika

ABSTRACT
This paper explores a possibility of re-defining the role of court interpreters from two different perspectives of intercultural communication and linguistic anthropology. It first identifies a gap between a) awareness toward communication, language use, and interpretation and b) practice of the court participants, such as judges and interpreters. Then, it demonstrates that the awareness most shared by court participants is that of the "conduit model," in which interpreters are situated between two monolingual participants of different languages, and are understood as a mere machine or conduit with no right to participate in the interaction. In practice, however, the interaction mediated by a court interpreter creates two quasi-autonomous discourses under different social and cultural constraints. That is, interpreters are the only ones who participate in both discourses, and, they are, indeed, NOT functioning as a mere conduit, but they try to render "compensatory translation" in order to translate the whole of the speech event. Based on the analysis and insights above, the paper suggests that the role of court interpreters should not be delimited to translating what has been said, since communication is mostly defined by what has not been said.

YOSHIDA Rika, "Interpreting Court Interaction?redefining the role of court interpreters."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 19-38.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Study of the Public Certification System for Interpreters and Translators in Sweden
TSUDA Mamoru

ABSTRACT
This paper examines the backgrounds and characteristics of the publicly certified translators and/or interpreters in Sweden, based on the fieldwork done under the commission of Japan's Ministry of Justice. A Swedish government institution, called Kammarkollegiet, since 1994 has been conducting the first level "Certified Interpreters" in selected languages, and for those who have already passed the first level, the examinations are held for "Certified Court Interpreters" and "Certified Medical Interpreters." On translation, the examinations are in two folds, one from Swedish to a foreign language, and another from a foreign language to Swedish. In 1996, the Kammarkollegiet also issued "God tolksed" (i.e., guidelines for good interpreting practice) for the practitioners. Sweden would give important lessons for Japan, in case the latter considers the introduction of a certification system in order to guarantee the quality of professional interpreters and translators for the public interests.

TSUDA Mamoru, "A Study of the Public Certification System for Interpreters and Translators in Sweden."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 167-187.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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The Court Interpreters in Japan and in the United States of America
NISHIMATSU Suzumi

ABSTRACT
Recently the number of penal cases with foreign defendants is increasing in Japan and the Japanese courts started to notice the importance of the quality of the performance of court interpreters, although the screening for qualified interpreters and training are still on-going process. In the United States of America, on the other hand, the Court Interpreters Act, established in 1978, stipulates various regulations, including the Federal Court Interpreter Certification Examination Program, for the quality and services which court interpreters should posses. After reviewing its history, contents and actual examination status, this paper examines the Consortium for State Court Interpreter Certification Program in details. At the end of the paper, some suggestions are presented for those concerned with the Japanese court interpreters system.

NISHIMATSU Suzumi, "The Court Interpreters in Japan and in the United States of America."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 189-204.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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The Relationship Between Fillers in Simultaneous Interpreting and Listener's Impressions on Interpreting Performance
TOHYAMA Hitomi and MATSUBARA Shigeki

ABSTRACT
Listener impressions received from simultaneous interpreter's utterances differ from those received from normal/ordinary speech. In this paper, we investigated the relationship between "fillers" appeared in simultaneous interpreter's utterances and listener impressions on interpreting performance by conducting a number of experiments. The results of these experiments indicated that the more frequently the fillers appeared in the middle position of interpreter's utterance units, the more unfavorable listeners' evaluation of over-all interpreting performance became. In comparing simultaneous interpreter's utterances with ordinary speech for the purpose of defining the characteristics of the fillers that appeared during simultaneous interpreting, it also became clear that the fillers appeared more frequently in simultaneous interpreter's utterances than in ordinary speech. These findings suggest that the fillers appeared in the middle position of interpreter's utterance units must have provided one of the reasons why listener impressions received from simultaneous interpreter's utterances differ from those received from ordinary speech.

TOHYAMA Hitomi and MATSUBARA Shigeki, "The relationship between fillers in simultaneous interpreting and listener's impressions on interpreting performance."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 39-49.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Comparative Analysis of Word-level Time Delay Between Japanese-English and English-Japanese Simultaneous Interpretations
ONO, T., TOHYAMA, H., MATSUBARA, S.

ABSTRACT
This paper discusses comparative analysis of word-level time delay between Japanese-English and English-Japanese simultaneous interpretations. For this investigation we used the Simultaneous Interpretation Database of Nagoya University in order to conduct quantitative analysis that requires a large scale corpus. Since temporal information was provided only to each utterance in this database, the effective use of it by providing word-level temporal information on the introduction of speech recognition techniques enabled us to observe a large amount of interpreted words with time delay. We analyzed 4,468 pairs of interpreted words retrieved from Japanese- English (J-E) interpretation data and 2,629 pairs of those from English- Japanese (E-J) interpretation data. As a result, it became clear that time delay in E-J interpretation was shorter than that in J-E interpretation and that part-of-speech and grammatical function of words of the source language made distinguished distribution of time-delay in the interpretation.

ONO, T., TOYAMA, H., MATSUBARA, S. "A comparative analysis of word-level time delay between Japanese-English and English-Japanese simultaneous interpretations."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 51-64.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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The Process of Acquiring Intercultural Communication Competence: A Case Study of Participants in an Interpretation Training Class
SHINZAKI Ryuko

ABSTRACT
This article examines how interpreters acquire intercultural communication competence, which consists of attitude, knowledge and skills. Participatory observation and journal methods were used to study six students participating in an interpretation training class at university. The results suggest that interpreta- tion experiences develop intercultural communication competence. The article also argues that intercultural competence specific to interpreters is, in essence, not different from what is generally required of direct participants in intercultural communication. The competence is gained through five major steps: basic knowledge of languages and cultures, basic language skills, interpersonal commnication competence, intercultural communication competence, and, finally, willingness to understand people of different cultures and to take positive actions to solve misunderstandings. Consideration for others and imagination to think of their needs are essential in developing intercultural competence.

SHINZAKI Ryuko, "The process of acquiring intercultural communication competence: A case study of participants in an interpretation training class."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 65-88.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Basic Consecutive Interpretation Process
Hiromi ITO-BERGEROT

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we examine the first step of conference interpretation training at ESIT: message comprehension and restitution without note taking, in otherwords, the acquisition of the basic interpretation process. We first present some findings from the recording of two Japanese-French interpretation classes in the first term. The second part is devoted to theoretical analysis based on the Interpretative Theory of Translation (TIT), to which some recent findings in cognitive science have been integrated (Ito-Bergerot, 2005a). In the last part, we propose an Interpreter's Speech Comprehension Model. This model derives from the text comprehension model proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch (1995), which can be compared to Lederer's "unite de sens". We also refer to the comprehension model of Gernsbacher (1990), who stresses the importance of suppressing irrelevant informa- tion during story understanding. In our model, the interpreter listening to a speech in X language, in order to translate it into Y language, constructs a situation model, which becomes a multi-layered complex structure of mental representations as the story develops. These mental representations have, under certain conditions, links with either the Y language system or the X language system, corresponding to the interpreter's awareness of specific words in the Y language that come to mind while listening to the speech, or the recall of an expression used by the speaker in the X language. This model can be used to describe students’ errors, as well as experts' skillful processing.

Hiromi ITO-BERGEROT, "Basic Consecutive Interpretation Process."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 89-116.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Study of 'Point of View' in Translation: Analyses of English and Japanese Translations of Momo
KATOU Hisaka

ABSTRACT
This paper examines 'point of view' in a narrative and its translations. If 'point of view’appears differently between narrative and translation, does that make any difference between the context of an original text and that of its translations? After making a distinction between 'point of view' and 'narrative voice,' I claim that the former plays an important role in identifying what is called 'grooves of expression' as found in each language. Also studied is the relationship between 'point of view' and the use of personal pronouns, tenses, and various speeches, as well as the types of 'representations of speech' and 'representations of thought.' Based on these theories, I have analyzed the German narrative Momo and its English and Japanese translations. This paper concludes with a proposal that there are some types of 'point of view' which have not been identified so far.

KATOU Hisaka, "A Study of 'Point of View' in Translation: Analyses of English and Japanese Translations of Momo."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 117-146.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Cooperative Learning in Audiovisual Translation Classes
INO Kinuyo Yoshida

ABSTRACT
When teaching audio visual translation in a university setting, collaborative approach enhances learning. Cooperative learning is effective especially in the case of subtitling, where its constrained nature provides too much of a challenge to undergraduate students. Furthermore, research has shown that cooperative learning results in greater efforts to achieve the task at hand and bring about more positive relationships among students. This article examines some of the positive effects of incorporating cooperative strategy into audiovisual translation classes.

INO Kinuyo Yoshida, "Cooperative Learning in Audiovisual Translation Classes."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 147-165.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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The Interpreter as a Listener/Speaker -- Observations from an Interpreter-mediated Business Meeting
TAKIMOTO Masato

ABSTRACT
This paper is a case study which examines a multi-party interpreting situation. Functions of an interpreter in such a situation appear to be more expanded and intricate than in dialogue situations, reflecting the dynamic and complex nature of the communicative interaction. For instance, the interpreter examined undertakes extensive editing activities, and reporting and summarising are components of the successful communication. The study is based on a naturalistic recording of a meeting with a number of participants, as well as on a stimulated-recall interview conducted right after the recording. The interpreter's actual behaviour is discussed in terms of her participation in the interaction as a listener and speaker, utilizing the framework presented by Clark (1996).

TAKIMOTO Masato, "The Interpreter as a Listener/Speaker -- Observations from an interpreter-mediated business meeting."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 205-218.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies


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Potential Links Between E-learning and Translator Education: Experiences at Macquarie University
INOUE Izumi

ABSTRACT
This paper aims to suggest potential links between e-learning and translator education for Japanese learners through e-learning experiences at Macquarie University. It has been pointed out that current professional education in various domains at tertiary educational institutes tends to be incapable of providing professional trainings which meet requirements set by professional communities. This concern appears to be consistent with translator education due to its ongoing dominant use of 'transmissionist' approach (Kiraly, 2000). This paper suggests one way of improving learner autonomy, learner interactions and learning in authentic settings through the introduction of e-learning in the domain of translator education.

INOUE Izumi, "Potential links between e-learning and translator education: Experiences at Macquarie University."
Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 219-229.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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The Characteristics and Issues of Interpreting Practicum in the Master's Program in Japanese-Chinese Simultaneous Interpretation at Beijing Language and Culture University
IWAMOTO Akemi

ABSTRACT
The Master's Program (in Interpreting and Translation Studies) at Osaka University of Foreign Studies (OUFS) Graduate School and the Master's Program in Simultaneous Interpretation at Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU) entered into an academic exchange agreement in 2005. As the first (Fall 2006) exchange student from OUFS, I attended the BLCU program, which is receiving great attention as the first to train Chinese-Japanese simultaneous interpreters at the graduate school level in China. I describe the BLCU program and the survey data from its students. In comparison, I note the BLCU’s superiority in practical coursework and the OUFS's superiority in theoretical coursework. Finally I offer proposals for the future based on the complementary natures of the programs. The author hopes that this report will not only provide detailed information about the BLCU program, but also help contribute to promoting further mutual understanding and cooperation between the two universities.

IWAMOTO Akemi, "The characteristics and issues of Interpreting Practicum in the Master's Program in Japanese-Chinese
Simultaneous Interpretation at Beijing Language and Culture University."

Interpretation Studies, No. 7, December 2007, Pages 231-251.
(c) 2007 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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(c) 2007 Japan Association for Interpretation Studies (文責:染)