No. 6, 2006

 目次  [オンラインアブストラクト]

 [論文] 
Roles of Interpreters in a Multilingual Multicultural Society -- Perspectives on Interpretation: 
   Experiences of a Participant-Observer, 1939-2005  (Full Paper: PDF)
       Etilvia Arjona-Tseng
翻訳における「名詞化」という文法的比喩
       長沼 美香子
中日・日中翻訳における文の「出発点」の選択に関する研究
      
翻訳序文に見る明治の英文学翻訳
       佐藤 美希 .
Translating Cohesion in Journalistic Texts, between Japanese and English
       KATORI Yoshikazu 
同時通訳者の身振りに関する研究(その2) 訓練生による英日同時通訳に関する事例研究
      古山宣洋・野邊修一・染谷泰正・関根和生・鈴木美緒・林浩司
訳出遅延時間と訳出開始タイミングに着目した同時通訳者の原発話追従ストラテジーに関する分析 
      遠山仁美・松原茂樹 
日本のビジネス通訳についての一考察――大手企業のグローバル人事を背景として 
      辻 和成
AUSIT倫理規定と通訳者の行動――ビジネス分野におけるダイアログ通訳の場合
      瀧本 眞人 
大学院における医療通訳教育とその課題――大阪外国語大学大学院の取り組みからの考察
      堀 朋子
Multiple Layers of Meaning -- Toward a Deepening of the “Sense” Theory of  Interpreting
      KONDO Masaomi 
[教育実践報告]
マルチメディア時代の通訳訓練――CALLシステムの導入とその有効活用について
     田中 深雪 
[研究ノート] 
法廷ディスコース分析――コーパス言語学からのアプローチ
       中村 幸子
中国清朝における翻訳者および翻訳対象の変遷 
       永田 小絵
[調査報告] 
海外調査報告:ニュージーランドの通訳事情 
     水野 真木子 
[活動報告] 
裁判及び弁護活動からみた法廷通訳 (日本通訳学会コミュニティー通訳分科会第8回例会特別講演)
     大山 貞雄 
[書評]
Note-Taking for Consecutive Interpreting -- A Short Course
    鶴田知佳子

Announcement & Information
  原稿募集のお知らせ
  第8回年次大会のお知らせと発表募集
  通訳学会への入会申し込み
  日本通訳学会規約
  投稿規定
  韓国国際会議通訳学会 学会誌への投稿要領 
  日本通訳学会組織構成
  編集後記 

  ----------------------------------------------------------------
  [編集委員会/Editorial Board]
   染谷 泰正  (SOMEYA Yasumasa, Editor-in-chief)
   水野 的  (MIZUNO Akira, Associate Editor)
   永田 小絵  (NAGATA Sae, Associate Editor) 
  [Consulting Editors] 
    Daniel Gile, Peter Davidson, Robin Setton, Ryoko Winter
 [査読委員/Referees]
  9名(氏名非公開/ Anonymous) 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
(発行日:2006年12月20日)


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Grammatical Metaphor of Nominalization in Translation
NAGANUMA Mikako

ABSTRACT
This paper explores the possibility of bridging the gap between theory and practice in translation from the view point of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), focusing specifically on nominalization. SFL regards language as a meaning-making resource which simultaneously has three metafunctions: ideational, interpersonal and textual. It is one of the most useful and powerful tools to analyze both source and target language texts ideationally, interpersonally and textually. SFL text analysis contributes to the understanding and the evaluation of texts, for which the translator constantly makes motivated decisions to make meaning. In this paper, I will firstly outline some relevant theories of translation studies and then move on to practical text analysis based on SFL to show how the grammatical metaphor of nominalization brings to the surface some challenges in translation between Japanese and English.

NAGANUMA Mikako, “Grammatical Metaphor of Nominalization in Translation.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 15-28 
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Comparative Study of the Selection of the ‘Point of Departure’ in Translation between Chinese and Japanese
TENG Minchun

ABSTRACT
This paper aims to explore how the "point of departure" in a sentence is chosen in translation between Chinese and Japanese texts and vice versa. The notion of "point of departure" is defined in systemic-functional grammar as the clause-initial ideational element, which is generally thought to be the theme. However, in Chinese and Japanese, the point of departure is not necessarily the theme because of subject ellipsis and topic chaining. Therefore, this paper reports on how the point of departure is changed or preserved in translation, and what influences translators' decision making in choosing the point of departure in the process of translation. The paper also investigates if there are any systemic tendencies in the observed changes and/or preservations of the point of departure in translated texts.

TENG Minchun, “A Comparative Study of the Selection of the ‘Point of Departure’ in Translation between 
Chinese and Japanese.” Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 29-48 
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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The relationship between translations of English literature, English literary studies and 
socio-cultural current of thought in Japan in the Meiji era
SATO Miki

ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between Japanese translations of English literature, English literary studies, and socio-cultural current of thought in the Meiji era in Japan. Having been translated by academic researchers, the Japanese translations of English literature have apparently been governed by the academia of English literary studies. Also, the academia has been developed as an institutionalised system under Japan’s ideology of striving for Westernisation. In order to demonstrate how translations of English literature, English literary studies and socio-cultural aspects were intertwined with each other, this paper explores the following three steps: descriptions of the forewords of some Japanese translations from Shakespeare’s works; analysis of how the concept of translation depicted in the forewords was closely associated with the development and the status of the English literary studies of the time; analysis of how the relationship between the translations and the academia was socio-culturally governed by the current of thought of the time. As a result of the analysis of the three steps, the paper aims to clarify the relationship between translations of English literature, English literary studies and socio- cultural current of thought. 

SATO Miki, “The relationship between translations of English literature, English literary 
studies and  socio-cultural current of thought in Japan in the Meiji era.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 49-68 
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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Translating Cohesion in Journalistic Texts, between Japanese and English
KATORI Yoshiaki

ABSTRACT
Using journalistic texts, this paper contrasts English norms for cohesion with Japanese norms. One major difference found is that English texts make much heavier use of anaphoric reference items than do Japanese texts. Second, in Japanese, predicates play an important role in giving a sequence of sentences a sense of unity. Third, English journalistic texts tend to have cohesive devices between paragraphs, more so than their Japanese equivalents. Fourth, the Japanese writer often repeats an identical word or phrase for a referent to maintain lexical cohesion, while the English writer has more options?the use of a synonym, metonymy, or superordinate?made available by the definite article. Fifth, translators putting English expository paragraphs into Japanese may have to use discourse markers that are implicit in the original, a difference created by the presence, or absence, of a code for paragraph organization. In either direction, translation done without regard for those differences creates texts that are unnatural at best, unintelligible at worst. 

KATORI Yoshiaki, “Translating Cohesion in Journalistic Texts, between Japanese and English.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 69-90 
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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A Study on Simultaneous Interpreter Gesture (Part 2): A Corpus-based Case Study of English-to-Japanese Simultaneous Interpreting by a Trainee
FURUYAMA, N., NOBE, S., SOMEYA, Y. , SEKINE, K., SUZUKI, M. & HAYASHI, S.

ABSTRACT
Speech and gestures are an integral part of utterance production. In simultaneous interpretation, however, the use of gestures is limited or, at least, not encouraged when an utterance is produced. Thus, in a typical formal training setting, trainees are encouraged not to depend on gestures when engaged in simultaneous interpretation. Despite this anti-gestural policy, anecdotal evidence shows that some, if not all, simultaneous interpreters and trainees do produce gestures during their interpretation. Given this fact, the following questions arise. When do interpreters produce simultaneous gestures and what kind are they? Do gestures help them interpret? If so, in what way are they helpful? Do gestures change in quality as well as in quantity as trainees acquire the skill of simultaneous interpretation? With these questions in mind, we began building a corpus of videotaped data of simultaneous interpretations. Last year, we reported the results of an analysis of the data on simultaneous interpretation by a trainee from Japanese into English.* The current paper describes the results of an analysis of the data on simultaneous interpretation by the same trainee from English into Japanese. This analysis suggests that studies of interpreter speech and gestures will shed light on the process of interpretation from a new and unique perspective and provide new indices of the skill level of simultaneous interpretation and, hopefully, ideas for new methods of training simultaneous interpreters.

* FURUYAMA et al. "A Study on Simultaneous Interpreter Gesture." Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 111-136. [PDF]

FURUYAMA, N., NOBE, S., SOMEYA, Y. , SEKINE, K., SUZUKI, M., & HAYASHI, K. “A Study on Simultaneous Interpreter
Gesture (Part 2): A Corpus-based Case Study of English-to-Japanese Simultaneous Interpreting by a Trainee.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 91-112
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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An analysis of simultaneous interpreters' strategies for following the source speech, focusing on the ear-voice span and the timing of the start of interpreting
TOYAMA Hitomi and MATSUBARA Shigeki

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we will discuss simultaneous interpreters’ strategies for following the  source speech. In this research, we conducted a survey of the time delay, aka EVS (ear-voicee span), in the translations of simultaneous interpreters, and analyzed the rollback as well as the timing of the start of the interpreter’s translation. We defined the “Interpretation unit” as the summarization of a certain meaning in the context of the source speech, and calculated the timing based on the number of interpretation units (hereinafter the “delayed interpretation unit”) that had not yet been translated by the interpreter during the course of the lecture. In this analysis, we used English-to-Japanese interpretation data that had been stored in the CLAIR simultaneous interpretation database at Nagoya University; specifically, data from two professional interpreters who provided interpreting for the same English lecture. Based on the results of the analysis, we observed that the interpreters could be divided into two types. The first type demonstrates long delay times in translations, with large variance in those delay times. This type often had one or more delayed interpretation units, and the timing of the start of the translation was not uniform. The other type could be characterized as real-time interpretation; that is, the delay times were short, and there were few delayed interpreta- tion units. Through this analysis, we confirmed that there are two different types of strategies when following the original speaker’s utterance in interpreting settings.

TOHYAMA Hitomi and MATSUBARA Shigeki, “An analysis of simultaneous interpreters' strategies for following the source speech, 
focusing on the ear-voice span and the timing of the start of interpreting.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 113-128
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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Business Interpretation in Japan from the Viewpoint of Corporate Management
TSUJI Kazunari

ABSTRACT
The massive expansion of international business has led to a huge growth in the demand for English communication in business world-wide. Recently in Japan, the form of globalization that has been advancing rapidly includes the inauguration of non-Japanese senior executives at allied Japanese companies. Consequently, these companies have created the rising demand for internal English communication as distinct from traditional external English communication. Correspondingly, the demand for interpretation at in-house meetings has been quickly and extensively established in the world of business in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to look into the practice of business interpretation in a company going global, and highlight the distinctive aspect of business interpretation from the viewpoint of corporate management. The paper also emphasizes the significance of facilitating conditions of business interpretation for its healthy and potential growth. 

TSUJI Kazushige, “Business Interpretation in Japan from the Viewpoint of Corporate Management.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 129-142
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
  


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The Professional Code of Ethics of AUSIT and Interpreters' Behaviour -- The Case of 
Dialogue Interpreting in the Business Domain
TAKIMOTO Masato

ABSTRACT
This paper attempts to examine professional interpreters’ behaviour with regard to the requirements set in the professional ethical codes in the Australian business interpreting context. The study, which is based on semi-structured interviews with seven accredited interpreters, reveals that there exist certain discrepancies between the codes and interpreters’ perception about their interpreting behaviour. It has been confirmed that interpreters make continuous efforts in order to respond to the expectations of their clients, which appears to result in their inconsistent behaviour with the codes. The study considered translation norm theory as an analytical framework.

TAKIMOTO Masato, “The Professional Code of Ethics of AUSIT and Interpreters' Behaviour -- The Case of 
Dialogue Interpreting in the Business Domain.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 143-154 
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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Graduate Level Medical Interpreting Education and its Challenges: A Case of the Graduate 
School of Osaka University of Foreign Studies
HORI Tomoko

ABSTRACT
The Graduate School of Osaka University of Foreign Studies (hereinafter referred to as OUFS) currently offers a program in medical interpreting, one of the groundbreaking programs for graduate level education in Japan. This paper presents details of the program’s characteristics and curriculum along with inside reports primarily of interpreting-related activities conducted during class. The paper also shows the results of a class evaluation questionnaire survey conducted on the final day of class for the purpose of analyzing student class assessments. Today, in Japan, the need of language assistance for patients with limited Japanese proficiency is increasing. To meet this need, many medical interpreting courses are held across the country. This paper offers practical suggestions for the OUFS graduate class of the future and comparisons with other such courses the author has attended.

HORI Tomoko, “Graduate Level Medical Interpreting Education and its Challenges: A Case of the Graduate 
School of Osaka University of Foreign Studies.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 155-174 
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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Multiple Layers of Meaning -- Toward a Deepening of the “Sense” Theory of Interpreting
KONDO Masaomi

ABSTRACT
Based on the results of a questionnaire survey* on Japanese conference interpreters regarding their work from their native Japanese into English, which was conducted by the author in 2005, the author contends that the interpreters should at least distinguish three layers of meaning: the lexical meaning of the individual words used, the meaning in the sense of "semantic content" or conceptual meaning, and the implied meaning. The problem for the interpreter, at least when Japanese utterances are involved, is that the second and third layers of meaning often diverge. The author feels that Japanese interpreters are ideally placed to raise this point, hopefully to contribute to a deeper understanding of the interpreting process.

* Kondo, M. (2005). Interpreting into B language -- Japanese Experience. Interpretation Studies, No. 5, 2006. pp. 261-283. [PDF]

KONDO Masaomi, “Multiple Layers of Meaning -- Toward a Deepening of the “Sense” Theory of Interpreting.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 175-182
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studie
 
 

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Interpreter Training in the Age of Multimedia -- CALL and its Effective Use
TANAKA Miyuki

ABSTRACT
With the rapid evolution of information technology, the introduction of various media tools into educational scenes in Japan is now in progress. In line with this trend, “Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)” facilities equipped with advanced technologies are taking over Language Laboratories at many universities and colleges. However, despite the expensive investment made, many teachers find it difficult to incorporate CALL into their language teaching. Especially in the filed of teaching “interpreting” the introduction of CALL is quite new and the pedagogy making full use of the system is far from being established. This paper first reports an “interpreting” class taught under CALL environment at a university in Japan. It then discusses some of the critical issues that need to be addressed when using the system. The paper suggests that the role of teachers as well as support of administrators is crucial in making most of the advanced technologies.

TANAKA Miyuki, “Interpreter Training in the Age of Multimedia -- CALL and its Effective Use.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 183-196
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 
 

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Legal Discourse Analysis -- a Corpus Linguistic Approach
NAKAMURA Sachiko

ABSTRACT
In recent years, research on legal discourse has been on the rise in the United States and United Kingdom. A new discipline, “forensic linguistics” was born and has developed as part of linguistic research. Although the work of forensic linguistics in early days was “usually undertaken as an intellectual challenge and almost always required the creation, rather than simply the application, of a method of analysis” (Coulthard 1994: 27), the advancement of computer technology since the 1990s and beyond has provided forensic linguists with a new analytical tool, known as corpus linguistics. This new discipline not only enables them to process a large volume of data but also provides them with a new method of analyzing those data. In this paper, I shall first overview the forensic text analysis conducted in the U.K., then, evaluate usefulness of corpus linguistics for courtroom discourse analysis and finally discuss its relevance to interpreter-mediated legal discourse in Japan.

NAKAMURA Sachiko, “Legal Discourse Analysis -- a Corpus Linguistic Approach.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 197-206
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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Transition and Dynamics of Translation in China during the Qing Dynasty
NAGATA Sae,

ABSTRACT
This paper addresses transition and dynamics of translation and interpretation during nearly 300 years of Qing dynasty, focusing on three types of translation: translation required for internal affairs of Qing, a multi-language nation; translation and interpre-  tation by missionaries; and translation capacitated by the Self-Strengthening Movement. Although they were different in translator groups and employed methodologies, all shared a primary philosophy of "absorbing new knowledge, educating the public, and promoting the national interests." Translation also served as a kind of social weapon and the paper examines what aspects the translators sought and precisely reproduced during their translation, and what were the translators’ judgments and how they manipulated texts when closely following original texts seemed to hinder translated texts' receptible and educational potentials and/or efficacies on social developments. The examination reveals social impacts of translators' judgment and their translation.

NAGATA Sae, “Transition and Dynamics of Translation in China during the Qing Dynasty.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 6, December 2006, Pages 207-228 
(c) 2006 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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