No. 5, 2005

 目次

 [論文] 
通訳ノートテイキングの理論のための試論――認知言語学的考察
    染谷 泰正
通訳における情報表示―日本語を起点言語として
    楊 承淑
TIT通訳理論と作業記憶
    BERGEROT 伊藤宏美
通訳教育の新しいパラダイム―異文化コミュニケーションの視点に立った通訳教育のための試論
    稲生衣代・染谷泰正
同時通訳者の身振りに関する研究
   古山宣洋・野邊 修一・染谷泰正・関根和生・林浩司
同時通訳における聴きやすさとポーズの関係―同時通訳コーパスを用いた被験者実験による分析
   遠山仁美・松原茂樹 
各種通訳倫理規定の内容と基本理念―会議、コミュニティー、法廷、医療通訳の倫理規定を比較して
   水野 真木子

[教育実践報告] 
Sink or Swim: Five basic strokes to E-J Consecutive Interpreting
  Minako Kuwahata
英日逐次通訳プロセスを応用した英語学習
   新崎 隆子
高校における「通訳訓練法」を取り入れた言語教育の効果と展望 
   越智 美江
大学における「翻訳教育」の事例― 翻訳理論を応用した試み
   長沼 美香子

[研究ノート] 
Foreignization(異化)、理論と実際--訳文の語彙を中心に
   玉置 祐子
西欧会議通訳小史
   BERGEROT 伊藤 宏美

[調査報告] 
B言語への通訳:日本の経験―アンケート調査報告 (Full Report)
  近藤 正臣
わが国の大学・大学院における通訳教育の実態調査  (Full Report) 
   染谷泰正・ 斎藤美和子・ 鶴田知佳子・田中深雪・稲生衣代

[活動報告] 
プロの通訳者とボランティア通訳者―その折り合いをどうつけるか:通訳教育とコミュニティー通訳の現場から考える
  通訳教育分科会・コミュニティー通訳分科会

[書評]
Translation: An Advance Resource Book
  井上泉 
Interpretation: Techniques and Exercises
   鶴田知佳子

[第5回年次大会関連]
Announcement & Information
  翻訳研究分科会設立趣旨
  原稿募集のお知らせ
  第7回年次大会のお知らせと発表募集
  通訳学会への入会申し込み
  日本通訳学会規約
  投稿規定
  韓国国際会議通訳学会 学会誌への投稿要領 
  日本通訳学会組織構成および役割分担(第3期)
  編集後記 

  ----------------------------------------------------------------
  [編集委員会/Editorial Board]
   染谷 泰正  (SOMEYA Yasumasa, Editor-in-chief)
   水野 的  (MIZUNO Akira, Associate Editor)
   永田 小絵  (NAGATA Sae, Associate Editor) 
  [Consulting Editors] 
    Daniel Gile, Peter Davidson, Robin Setton, Ryoko Winter
 [査読委員/Referees]
  9名(氏名非公開/ Anonymous) 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------
(発行日:2004年12月20日)


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A Cognitive-Linguistic Model of Interpreter's Notes and Note-taking.
SOMEYA Yasumasa

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to propose a cognitive-linguistic model of interpreter's notes and note-taking. Interpreter's notes are a reflection of his/her understanding of the target text. As such, their notes as a whole -- however at random they seem on the surface -- must have a certain systematicy with some underlying structure. This structure may or may not be overt in the forms of linguistic and/or ideogramic cues, but is nevertheless considered to exist beneath the surface if and iff the notes are based on the interpreter's sound understanding of the target text. This paper tries to identify this "structure" in cognitive-linguistic terms in an attempt to construct a theory of interpreter's notes and note-taking. First, we examine the notion of "mental representation" of a given text to define what exactly is meant when we say we understand something. We then introduce the Predicate-Argument Schema proposed by Kintsch (1998) as a most promising model of text comprehension. The P-A Schema in its original form, however, is not quite applicable as a theoretical model of note-taking. We, therefore, propose a revised model, which we call the "Thematic P-A Schema," and show how useful this model is in analysing interpreter's notes as an externalized approximation of the mental representation of his/her understanding of the target text.

SOMEYA Yasumasa, "A Cognitive-Linguistic Model of Interpreter's Notes and Note-taking."
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 1-29
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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The Representation of Information in Interpretation: Japanese as a Source Language
Yang, Cheng-shu

ABSTRACT
This paper will use the territory theory of information to explore the intermediate representation of  information in the note taking process of interpretation as well as in sign language by the use of corpus material. By looking at the linguistic facts and the representation of information that exist during the processing of information between the two languages, the characteristics of intermediate information representation in spoken Japanese, as well as the representation of information in the description of concepts and events will be explored. From the representation of information in Japanese and sign language, we can discover the process the interpreter goes through when storing and retrieving information and the particular characteristics of this process. Furthermore, by using the intermediate representation of information, we can come up with ordered structures of discourse, as well as being able to reconstruct the information contained in the Japanese source language. 

Yang, Cheng-shu., "The Representation of Information in Interpretation: Japanese as a Source Language."
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 31-52
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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The TIT Theory of Interpreting and Working Memory
Hiromi ITO-BERGEROT

ABSTRACT
At ESIT (Ecole Supérieure des Interprètes et des Traducteurs, Université de Paris 3), student training, both in consecutive and simultaneous interpretation, is based on the interpretative theory (Théorie interpretative de la traduction, or TIT). This theory dates from the 1970's, and its assumptions on cognitive processes, based on conference interpreter's experience and a French neurologist's findings on human language processing, were different from those of language processing models put forward by researchers in automatic translation or machine recognition of natural language. However cognitive studies have evolved since the 1980's in such a way that they integrate progress in various fields, including brain and neurological studies, working memory models and text comprehension studies as well as connectionist models. So when we attempt to analyze the cognitive processes involved in interpreting and skill learning with an up-dated TIT approach, it is worthwhile to examine the possibility of integrating in the TIT memory model the notion of "working memory" with its various functions. In this paper, we first examine the memory functions described in the interpretative theory, and why it was incompatible with the models proposed by the information-processing theory of the 1970's. Then we review the evolution of cognitive studies during the past 20 years or so. In the third part, we examine some recent working memory models and show how the notion of working memory can be used in an updated TIT approach to describe students' progress in terms of improved efficiency of the working memory.

Hiromi ITO-BERGEROT, "The TIT Theory of Interpreting and Working Memory."
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 53-72
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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A New Paradigm for Interpreter Education: From the Perspective of Intercultural Communication
INO Kinuyo Yoshida and SOMEYA Yasumasa

ABSTRACT
Currently, "interpreting" courses are offered by more than 100 universities and colleges all over Japan and, considering the popularity of these courses among students, the number is likely to increase in the years ahead. Most of these courses, however, are being offered as an extended-type of a foreign language course with the primary, if not the sole, course objective of the enhancement of students' linguistic skills. Being an interpreter, however, requires much more than linguistic competence. Interpreters are not just a conve- nient conduit of communication: they are essentially "mediators" of intercultural communication. As such they must have a strong intercultural communication competence as the basis of their interpreting competence. This paper first reviews the notion of "communication competence" and discusses some of the basic concepts thereof from an intercultural perspective.  It then proposes a new paradigm, which the authors hope will provide a solid conceptual basis for rewriting the current syllabuses of the so-called "interpreting" courses in such a way as to give them a renewed status and function within the university education.

TANAKA Miyuki, "Current Pedagogical Issues in Teaching Interpreting at the Undergraduate Level."
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 63-82.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Study on Simultaneous Interpreter Gesture
FURUYAMA, N., NOBE, S., SOMEYA, Y. , SEKINE, K. & HAYASHI, S.

ABSTRACT
Theorists in speech-gesture study agree that speech and gestures are an integral part of utterance production. There are, however, fields where the use of gestures is limited or, at least, not encouraged when an utterance is produced. One of them is simultaneous interpretation. In a typical formal training setting, trainees are encouraged not to depend on gestures when engaged in simultaneous interpretation. Despite this anti-gestural policy, anecdotal evidence shows that some, if not all, simultaneous interpreters and trainees do produce gestures during their interpretation. Given this fact, the following questions arise. When do interpreters produce simultaneous gestures and what kind are they? Do gestures help them interpret? If so, in what way are they helpful? Do gestures change in quality as well as in quantity as trainees acquire the skill of simultaneous interpretation? With these questions in mind, we began building a corpus of videotaped data of simultaneous interpretations. This paper describes the results of a preliminary analysis of this data. This analysis suggests that studies of interpreter speech and gestures will shed light on the process of interpretation from a new and unique perspective and provide new indices of the skill level of simultaneous interpretation and, hopefully, ideas for new methods of training simultaneous interpreters.

FURUYAMA, N., NOBE, S., SOMEYA, Y. , SEKINE, K. & HAYASHI, S. "A Study on Simultaneous Interpreter Gesture ." 
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 111-136
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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Relationship between Listener Impressions and the Length of Pause in Simultaneous Interpreting: An Analysis of Experimental Data Using the CIAIR Simultaneous Interpretation Database
TOYAMA Hitomi and MATSUBARA Shigeki

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we focus on the pauses that partly characterize the utterances of simultaneous interpreters, and attempt to analyze the results of experiments conducted using human subjects on the relationship between listener impressions and the length of pause. In speech, a pause is an essential element for producing the rhythmic aspect of spoken language, and this rhythmic aspect is closely related to a person's listening skill and understanding of the semantic contents of speech. However, since simultaneous interpreters make pauses in order to wait for the speaker's next input before starting their interpretation, interpreters' utterances give us a different impression from conventional utterances and those pauses ought to influence a listener's impressions. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of listener-friendly simultaneous interpretation. We conducted experiments to clarify this influence by using 31 subjects and two different types of English-Japanese simultaneous interpretation data, these being free-utterance lectures without a prepared script (A-style lectures), and lectures based on prepared scripts (B-style lectures). We selected 12 A-style lectures and 9 B-style lectures from the CIAIR Simultaneous Interpretation Database. The results reveal that in A-style lectures where the speed of speeches was relatively low, it was ascertained that the lengths of pauses appearing in interpreters' utterances were short in cases which the subjects evaluated as listener-friendly interpretation. In B-style lectures where the speed of speeches was high, it was ascertained that the length of interpreters' pauses has little influence on the subjects' listener impressions. Moreover, we found a common feature in both lecture styles: the listener impressions were based on the stability of the speech-pause period and the presence of rhythm.

TOYAMA Hitomi and MATSUBARA Shigeki, "Relationship between Listener Impressions and the Length of Pause in 
Simultaneous Interpreting: An Analysis of Experimental Data Using the CIAIR Simultaneous Interpretation Database." 
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 137-155
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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Contents and Philosophy of Codes of Ethics in Conference, Community, Legal and Health Care Interpreting.
MIZUNO Makiko

ABSTRACT
As the profession of interpreting matures, it becomes important to create shared understandings of what is considered high quality and what is the expected level of ethical behavior. To this end, various types of code of ethics have been developed by various organizations related to this profession. This paper analyses the similarities and differences between codes of ethics in four fields of interpreting, namely, conference interpreting, community interpreting in general, court interpreting and health care interpreting, in order to find out core values on which their respective codes of ethics are grounded. By clarifying such core values, professional responsibilities of each field of interpreting will be clearly defined. This paper concludes with a suggestion that creating shared codes of ethics will pave the way for the enhanced quality of interpreting, especially in legal and medical fields, and official recognition of each field as a profession in a real sense.

IMIZUNO Makiko, "Contents and Philosophy of Codes of Ethics in Conference, Community, Legal and Health Care Interpreting." 
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 157-172
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies 


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Sink or Swim: Five basic strokes to E-J Consecutive Interpreting.
KUWAHATA Minako

ABSTRACT
The acquisition of any new skill is a challenging process and this is also the case with interpreting skills. While there is common understanding for the need to undertake preparatory work prior to the introduction of actual consecutive interpreting (CI), no consensus is seen in how to lead the students through the first stages of CI. At that stage, students need to learn to cope with a combination of external factors such as stress, anxiety and performance pressures in addition to the developing actual CI skills. It is the view of the author that if some of the initial processing obstacles were removed, the students are able to progress in their learning with greater ease and confidence. In this paper, consecutive interpreting is likened to swimming, where a combination of mechanical skills is necessary in the first instance to achieve an outcome. The skill set was broken down into five basic ‘strokes' which are the initial steps that the student interpreter is led through in order to help them through the transitional process between the preparatory phase of interpreting and actual interpreting training per se.  It is a gentle lead-in process to allow students to begin attaining greater competency in CI. Each of these 'strokes' is explained, and practical examples of how they can be taught are provided. While the paper deals specifically with techniques applied in an English-into-Japanese interpreting environment, the main principles are applicable to other language combinations.

KUWAHATA Minako, "Sink or Swim: Five basic strokes to E-J Consecutive Interpreting." 
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 173-181
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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Application of Consecutive Interpretation Training Method to General English Learning
SHINZAKI Ryuko

ABSTRACT
This paper proposes an application of consecutive interpretation training to general English learning. Consecutive interpretation training has three advantages which enhance English learning efficiency. First, it improves listening comprehension by limiting the scope of the ordinary listening process. Second, it helps English speaking practice by relieving students of the burden of thinking of what to say and allowing them to concentrate on producing English sentences. Third, it gives students excitement and stimuli by asking them to perform interpretation in front of their teacher and classmates. However, consecutive interpretation training from English to Japanese has two disadvantages; it emphasizes translation quality, which is not necessary for general English learners, and it gives students less chance to use and experience English in class. The proposed method removes the translation process from consecutive interpretation training to make it applicable to general English training.

SHINZAKI Ryuko, "Application of Consecutive Interpretation Training Method to General English Learning."
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 183-201 
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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The Effectiveness and Prospect of Interpreting Training Methods as Part of Language Education in Japanese Senior High Schools
OCHI Yoshie

ABSTRACT
This paper proposes a pedagogical model for high school English classes using interpreting training methods, and analyzes the effectiveness and prospect of the methods as part of the English education in Japanese senior high schools. Although the effectiveness and the interest in incorporating interpretation methods have been increasing in the language programs of Japanese universities, there are still few high schools that have started using the methods. Nothing has been established in terms of methodologies, evaluations and instructors' training. This paper is a case report of senior high school English classes using some of the basic interpreting training methods. The major aim of my practice is to enhance students' ability in the acquisition of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills through the methods. A two-year implementation proved that there are a lot of benefits, bringing energy, vitality, changes, interaction and concentration into the classroom activities, yet there are several pedagogical issues that have to be considered and improved. This paper concludes with practical suggestions for the remaining issues and the future prospect concerning teaching English through interpreting training methods.

OCHI Yoshie, "The effectiveness and prospect of interpreting training methods as part of language education in Japanese senior high schools." 
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 203-224
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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Teaching Translation at the Undergraduate Level: an Approach Based on Translation Studies
NAGANUMA Mikako

ABSTRACT
Teaching translation at the undergraduate level is a burgeoning field, but it is challenging partly because of lacking in precedent teaching models. Compared with interpreting training which has increasingly flourished recently among foreign language teaching programs in Japanese universities, translation education has yet to be fairly treated with insights of contemporary linguistic theories. Since rendering one language into another on a written basis tends to be regarded as an old fashioned method in the pedagogy of foreign languages as opposed to a communicative approach, teaching translation itself seems to have been somehow stagnant and underdeveloped. This paper explores a new perspective of teaching translation based on the theory-oriented translation studies by presenting a case study of my translation class at a university in Japan.

NAGANUMA Mikako, "Teaching Translation at the Undergraduate Level: an Approach Based on Translation Studies." 
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 225-237
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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Foreignization -- Theory and Practice
TAMAKI Yuko

ABSTRACT
This paper is based on my M.A. thesis in which I carried out a research on foreignization within the Japanese context. Foreignization (Venuti 1995, 1998), an important concept in Translation Studies, often seems to be confused with a translation technique: the literal approach (Fawcett 1998). This article attempts to offer a detailed theoretical insight into foreignization along with the literal approach and to redefine the concept of foreignization in its own sense, by focusing on its archaic usages in both English and Japanese translations. As foreignization tends to put more emphasis on the ideological pressure against the target-language culture than on the faithfulness to the original text, it seems difficult to find examples of foreignizing translation in Japanese. It can be due to the fact that there is little sign of cultural ideological superiority in Japan (UNESCO 1998) and the language is rather heterogeneous than homogeneous (e.g. a Japanese deviant discourse based on European texture typically found in the contemporary Japanese, indicated by Kisaka 1987). It is now safe to state that the concept of foreignization seems to only apply to a very limited context (particularly in the dominant contemporary American cultural agenda). It, therefore, needs to be reconsidered especially within non-English translations.

TAMAKI Yuko, "Foreignization -- Theory and Practice."
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 239-254
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 

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A Short History Of Conference Interpreting In Europe
Hiromi ITO-BERGEROT

ABSTRACT
For Japanese people, "conference interpretation" means simultaneous interpretation,  as professional interpretation was introduced in the 1950s in that form. However, in Western Europe, the form of conference interpretation widely used in multilateral meetings between the first and second world wars was consecutive interpretation. Professional interpreters developed their own note-taking techniques in order to render speeches lasting five, ten minutes or longer at a stretch. This period is known as the Golden Age of consecutive interpretation. The importance of consecutive interpretation in training programmes in European schools such as ESIT in Paris or ETI in Geneva, comes from this historical background. 

Hiromi ITO-BERGEROT, "A Short History Of Conference Interpreting In Europe."
Interpretation Studies, No. 5, December 2005, Pages 255-260
(c) 2005 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies
 
 

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