編集委員会のトップページに戻る

 No. 4, 2004

目次

 [論文] 
Conceptualization Processes in Simultaneous Interpretation
      Funayama Chuta  . . . 1 
通訳における訳語選択の理論と実際
       鶴田知佳子・ 佐藤芳明・河原清志. . . 15 
事例から見た通訳者の語用論アプローチ
       渡部富栄 . . . 41
「通訳訓練法」を利用した大学での英語教育の実際と問題点
       田中深雪 . . . 63
大学教育における「映像翻訳コース」の指導手法に関する研究
       稲生衣代 . . . 83
日本映画における英仏伊の文化認識の相違がもたらす字幕のずれ
      小谷康子 . . . 103
米国における医療通訳とLEP患者
       石崎正幸・Patricia D. Borgman・西野かおる . . . 121
欧州 における司法通訳・翻訳をめぐる近年の動きと展望
   水野真木子 . . . 139

[研究ノート] 
体系的翻訳論への一試論:関連性理論および情報構造を中心に
      玉置祐子 . . . 157

[実践報告/活動報告] 
世界のコミュニティ通訳者のネットワークについて -- 第4回クリティカル・リンク国際会議をめぐって
      西松鈴美 . . . 171
IATIS創立大会報告
      鳥飼玖美子 . . . 177

[書評]
Introducing Interpreting Studies
   鶴田知佳子 . . . 181
Becoming a Translator: An introduction to the theory and practice of translation
     鶴田知佳子 . . . 183

[第5回年次大会関連] 
日本通訳学会第5回年次大会報告 . . . 185
第5回年次大会特別企画「コミュニティ通訳シンポジウム」報告 . . . 188

Announcement & Information
  新会長就任挨拶. . . 210 
  通訳教育分科会について. . . 211
  コミュニティー通訳研究分科会について. . . 213
  原稿募集のお知らせ . . . 214
  第6回年次大会のお知らせと発表募集 . . . 215
  通訳学会への入会申し込み . . . 217
  日本通訳学会規約 . . . 218
  投稿規定 . . . 227
  韓国国際会議通訳学会 学会誌への投稿要領 . . . 235
  編集後記 . . . 236
 

  ----------------------------------------------------------------
  [編集委員会/Editorial Board]
   染谷 泰正  (SOMEYA Yasumasa, Editor-in-chief)
   水野 的  (MIZUNO Akira, Associate Editor)
   永田 小絵  (NAGATA Sae, Associate Editor) 
  [Consulting Editors] 
    Daniel Gile, Peter Davidson, Robin Setton, Ryoko Winter
 [査読委員/Referees]
  9名(氏名非公開/ Anonymous) 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------

(発行日:2004年12月20日)
 
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Conceptualization Processes in Simultaneous Interpretation
FUNAYAMA Chuta 

ABSTRACT
This paper proposes a theoretical framework to trace conceptualization in utterance comprehension and it is applied to the analysis of authentic records of simultaneous interpreting. A lexical entry in utterance is supposed to trigger first a cognitive object with a lexical tag, which may shift to a conceptual tag. The latter is purported to represent conceptualization processes going on in utterance understanding. Several pieces of evidence are shown to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical devices proposed here. The proposed model is considered helpful in analyzing simultaneous interpretation and at the same time expected to contribute to the study of utterance understanding. 

FUNAYAMA Chuta, “Conceptualization Process in Simultaneous Interpretation.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 1-13.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Lexical Selection in Interpreting -- A Theoretical Account
TSURUTA Chikako, SATO Yoshiaki, KAWAHARA Kiyoshi

ABSTRACT
How does the professional interpreter go about choosing the “best” translation equivalent in the target language? This article, focusing on the interpretation of English into Japanese, approaches this fundamental question from both theoretical and practical points of view. We attempt to show an underlying mechanism behind the process of selecting translation equivalents (i.e. Japanese expressions) within the theoretical framework of cognitive semantics. Contrary to a widely-held belief, frequently occurring basic words are more difficult than so-called “difficult (technical) words” since the choice of the translation equivalent for a basic word is based on the context in which it is used. Experienced interpreters tend to rely on their instinct in choosing the right translation equivalent, but it is our claim that their instinct should be supported on theoretical grounds. In this paper, we analyze texts drawn from actual interpretation scenes, and discuss the results from a theoretical perspective. We also suggest that the proposed framework has some pedagogical implications for both interpretation/ translation education and English education.

TSURUTA Chikako, SATO Yoshiaki, KAWAHARA Kiyoshi, “Lexical Selection in Interpreting -- A Theoretical Account.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 15-40.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Pragmatic Approaches of Interpreters in Ten Cases from Real Settings
WATANABE Tomie

ABSTRACT
This paper aims at clarifying pragmatic approaches adopetd by interpreters in their interpreting process through analyses of ten interpretation cases. It is assumed in this study that interpreters usually seek relevance/coherence during the process of interpretation. If an interpreter’s pragmatic approaches went well, listeners would achieve relevance/coherence in their minds and, therefore, feel satisfied with the progress of discussion through the interpreter. In the process of seeking relevance/coherence, a certain “conviction” will emerge in an interpreter’s mind that there is relevance/ coherence between given-information and new-information. Sometimes a specific context in a setting requires an interpreter to make implicatures of source language (SL) explicit. In this case, the conviction is a major determinant of the interpreter’s decision- making whether or not that implicit part of SL should be made explicit in target language (TL). It is surmised that the pragmatic approaches observed in this study are based either on the respective interpreter’s professional autonomy or obligation. The results in this paper are preliminary due to the small number of cases. Further study should be considered. 

WATANABE Tomie, “Pragmatic Approaches of Interpreters in Ten Cases from Real Settings.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 41-62.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Current Pedagogical Issues in Teaching Interpreting at the Undergraduate Level
TANAKA Miyuki

ABSTRACT
As the interest toward incorporating communicative approach to foreign language teaching increased among EFL instructions in Japan, there has been a steady increase of the number of universities that have started teaching interpretation classes as part of their language programs. Since the field of interpreting training is rather new compared to the traditional EFL instruction, there is considerable amount of confusions and misunderstandings among educators in terms of methodologies, evaluations, adequate class sizes and even to qualification of instructors. This paper is a case report of one of those interpretation classes at a university in Japan. After three months of study, students responded to the questionnaires. The results revealed that there are several pedagogical issues that need to be addressed when teaching interpretation classes. The paper concludes with practical suggestions to seek breakthroughs to some of the issues concerning teaching interpreting at undergraduate level in Japan. 

TANAKA Miyuki, “Current Pedagogical Issues in Teaching Interpreting at the Undergraduate Level.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 63-82.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Study of the Pedagogy of Screen Translation Courses
INO Kinuyo Yoshida

ABSTRACT
Translation/Interpretation courses in Japanese universities are on the rise. The utilization of technology such as CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) is becoming increasingly prominent in language education. Currently, the major aim of these courses is to improve student’s language ability using various translation / interpretation training methods. Language teaching and translation / interpretation training both seek to enhance intercultural communication skills. Thus, these two fields interact positively. By taking into account several translating and subtitling theories, this paper proposes a pedagogy model for interpreting/translation courses focusing on screen translation. In order to teach efficiently in a screen translation course, teachers need to encourage the students to develop not only translating skills but also cultural and subject specific competence. 

INO Kinuyo Yoshida, “A Study of the Pedagogy of Screen Translation Courses.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 83-101.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Cultural Gaps in Film Subtitles -- A Comparative Study Between the Japanese Film "Rhapsody in August" and it's English, French, and Italian Subtitles
KOTANI Yasuko

ABSTRACT
Culture is an important element for translation and it is no surprise that much research on culture and translation has been carried out so far. However, film translation has been an exception. Watching film is one of the most popular forms of entertainment all over the world. We can now easily watch many foreign films and are familiar with film subtitles. By contrast, the research on subtitling is still new in the field of translation and we know very little about the nature of interlingual subtitling. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the cultural gaps observed between the Japanese film “Rhapsody in August” and its English, French, and Italian subtitles. On the basis of this analysis, a new research model based on a cultural approach will be presented in order to further extend the research horizon in this new field.

KOTANI Yasuko, “Cultural Gaps in Film Subtitles -- A Comparative Study Between the Japanese Film “Rhapsody in August” and it’s English, French, and Italian Subtitles.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 103-120.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Medical Interpreting and LEP Patients in the USA
ISHIZAKI Masayuki, BORGMAN Patricia and NISHINO Kaoru

ABSTRACT
The USA, a country where over 300 different languages are spoken, is linguistically the most diversified in the world. The 2000 census shows that 28.4 million Americans, ca. 10% of the total US population, are foreign-born, and that a large portion of this population is LEP, or of Limited English Proficiency. The government estimates that there are 19 million LEP residents in the US. Under federal law, chiefly the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 13166, as well as LEP Policy Guidance, medical providers who receive federal financial assistance are responsible to provide competent interpreter services at no cost for LEP patients, and patients have the right to request a trained medical interpreter at any time. This paper describes historical details of the development of medical interpreting services, the legal framework of medical interpreting, the medical interpreter training programs, and clinical studies about medical interpreters in the USA, making specific reference to a state certification program for medical interpreters in Washington State.

ISHIZAKI Masayuki, BORGMAN Patricia and NISHINO Kaoru. “Medical Interpreting and LEP Patients in the USA.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 121-138
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Future Prospects of the European Legal Interpreting System
MIZUNO Makiko

ABSTRACT
Communication problems across languages and cultures are prevalent in all parts of Europe. Communication breakdown brings about disastrous consequences especially in the field of justice. Article 5, paragraph 2, and Article 6, paragraph 3, of the European Convention on Human Rights clearly set out the requirements for interpreting and translation in all legal cases in order to arrive at a “fair trial.” To translate into practice this fundamental principle of equal access to justice stipulated in the ECHR, the Grotius Project was launched with participation of several EU member states. The main aim of the project was to encourage the establishment of internationally consistent best practice standard and equivalencies in legal interpreting and translation. This paper focuses on the contents and outcomes of the Grotius Project reviewing the legal basis for the need for qualified interpreting and translation in the judicial settings, and concludes with the remaining problems and the future prospects with a launch of the new project “AGIS.”

MIZUNO Makiko, “Future Prospects of the European Legal Interpreting System.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 139-156.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Toward a Systematic Theory of Translation -- Focusing on Information Structure and Relevance Theory
TAMAKI Yuko

ABSTRACT
Recently in Japan, especially in the last two decades, there has been an overall tendency of using grammatical analysis as translation techniques with an emphasis on the “flow” of the texts (Anzai 1995). However, these techniques are usually not theory-driven but rather based on personal experiences of renowned translators. This article offers an overview of two key theories in Translation Studies; i.e., the Information Structure, elaborated mainly by Firbas (1992) and Takami (1995), and the Relevance Theory based on the works of Sperber & Wilson (1986) and Gutt (2000). The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the information structure and the contextual effects in the principle of of relevance. These appear to be highly useful and essential to elaborate theory-driven Japanese translation techniques, enabling translators to improve the quality of translation. 

TAMAKI Yuko. “Toward a Systematic Theory of Translation -- Focusing on Information Structure and Relevance Theory.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 4, December 2004, Pages 157-169.
(c) 2004 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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(c) 2004 Japan Association for Interpretation Studies (YS)