No. 3, 2003

Online ABSTRACT 

 [論文] 
The Interpretive Theory of Translation 
       Choi JungWha  . . . 1 
A Comparison of Task Management and Lexical Search Mechanisms in Novice and Professional Translators/Interpreters
       Eddie Ronowicz and Kyoko Imanishi . . . 16 
同時通訳を介した異言語間対話の時間的特徴―逐次通訳との比較に基づく対訳コーパスの分析
      大原 誠・松原 茂樹・笠 浩一朗・河口 信夫・稲垣 康善 . . . 35
放送通訳の変遷と通訳・翻訳手法に関する考察―CNN二カ国語放送を例に
      稲生 衣代 . . . 54
放送通訳をつけたニュース番組に対する需要の変化と今後の展望
      柴原 智幸 . . . 70

[実践報告] 
A Report on the Deposition Interpreting Class at the Monterey Institute of International Studies
      TAKEDA Kayoko . . . 83
司法通訳翻訳人訓練の方法論―大阪外国語大学大学院での実践
      西松 鈴美 . . . 103
法務通訳翻訳の世界―その多様性と将来性
     渡辺 由紀子 . . . 122

[活動報告] 
第13回国際応用言語学会シンガポール大会報告
      鳥飼 玖美子 . . . 136
「通訳教授法ワークショップ 2003」 報告 
      稲生 衣代 . . . 140

[第4回年次大会関連] 
日本通訳学会第4回年次大会報告 . . . 147

原稿募集のお知らせ . . . 156
第5回年次大会のお知らせと発表募集 . . . 157
通訳学会への入会申し込み . . . 158
日本通訳学会規約 . . . 159
投稿規定 . . . 168
編集後記 . . . 176

  ----------------------------------------------------------------
  [編集委員/Editorial Board]
   染谷 泰正  (SOMEYA Yasumasa, Editor-in-chief)
   水野 的  (MIZUNO Akira, Associate Editor)
   永田 小絵  (NAGATA Sae, Associate Editor) 
   マイケル・ガーナー (Michael Gurner, Associate Editor) 
  [Consulting Editors] 
    Daniel Gile, Peter Davidson, Robin Setton, Ryoko Winter
  [査読委員/Referees] 
  9名(氏名非公開/ Anonymous) 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------

(発行日:2003年12月20日)
 
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The Interpretive Theory of Translation and Its Current Applications
Choi Jungwha 

ABSTRACT
Interpreting and translation are two of the oldest activities in the annals of human history. Records of translation activities date back over 2000 years, and since ancient times, translation has been studied by numerous scholars. Interpreting, on the other hand, had no theory of its own, so to speak, until modern times. Although the activity of interpreting dates back to ancient times, it did not begin to take shape in its modern form until 1917 at the negotiation table of the Versailles Treaty. Consecutive interpreting, in which the interpreter begins only after the speaker has finished, came about after the Versailles Treaty. In contrast, simultaneous interpreting, which has become the preferred mode, had its debut at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II. 
   The Interpretive Theory of Translation (aka, the Theory of Sense) was developed by Danica Seleskovitch and Marianne Lederer (researchers at the Ecole Superieure d’Interpretes et de Traducteurs (ESIT) at the University of Paris III ― the so-called Paris School). The following is a brief outline of this theory. 

Choi Jungwha, “The Interpretive Theory of Translation and Its Current Applications.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 1-15.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Comparison of Task Management and Lexical Search Mechanisms  in Novice and Professional Translators/Interpreters
Eddie Ronowicz and Kyoko Imanishi 

ABSTRACT
There is a fair amount of evidence available from past studies on the way language and translation students’, i.e. ‘novice translators’ handle the task of translation. The paper first examines this evidence in an attempt to summarise typical novice-translator behaviours in managing a translation task and lexical searches. We then present the results of a qualitative analysis of two professional translators/ interpreters, who were subjects in a think-aloud study of 14 subjects in 2002 focusing on the way they manage lexical searches during a translation task as well as the time and manner of processing the source language text and target language text. Finally, the performance of the two professionals is compared with the performance of novice translators with the aim of identifying differences that might be responsible for higher speed and quality of  target text output by professionals.

Eddie Ronowicz and Kyoko Imanishi, “A Comparison of Task Management and Lexical Search Mechanisms in Novice and Professional Translators/Interpreters.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 16-34.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Temporal Features of Cross-Lingual Communication Mediated by Simultaneous Interpreting: An Analysis of Parallel Translation Corpus in Comparison to Consecutive Interpreting
OHARA Makoto, MATSUBARA Shigeki, RYU Koichiro, KAWAGUCHI Nobuo, and INAGAKI Yasuyoshi

ABSTRACT
In recent years, there have been a number of studies on simultaneous machine interpretation to develop the environments for supporting multilingual communications. The effectiveness of simultaneous interpreting in cross-language conversation, however, remains to be investigated. This paper describes the characteristic features of dialogues through simultaneous interpreting in comparison to those through consecutive interpreting. We have investigated them using the CIAIR simultaneous interpreting corpus. As a result, we have confirmed that simultaneous interpreting is effective in significantly increasing both the efficiency and smoothness of cross- language conversation.

OHARA Makoto, MATSUBARA Shigeki, RYU Koichiro, KAWAGUCHI Nobuo, and INAGAKI Yasuyoshi, “Temporal Features of Cross-Lingual Communication Mediated by Simultaneous Interpreting: An Analysis of Parallel Translation Corpus in Comparison to Consecutive Interpreting.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 35-53.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Brief History of Broadcast Interpreting and the Changes in the Style of Translation/Interpreting: A Case of CNN in Japan
INO Kinuyo Yoshida

ABSTRACT
Broadcast Translation/Interpretation for CNN in Japan started in 1984. This paper describes three changes which occurred during the last two decades. At the very early stage, the requirement was to translate every word into Japanese. The second stage required interpreters: 1) to edit and translate the news material; and 2) to do voice overs like an announcer. The current, third stage requires simultaneous interpretation of all the materials in real time. Due to the demands from the production side, translating styles varied from time to time forcing the changes in the qualification of translators and interpreters, which lead to the birth of a new type of interpreters.

INO Kinuyo Yoshida, “A Brief History of Broadcast Interpreting and the Changes in the Style of Translation/Interpreting: A Case of CNN in Japan.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 54-69.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Broadcast Interpreting -- the Changing Demands and Future Prospects
SHIBAHARA Tomoyuki

ABSTRACT
Broadcasting interpreting is now widely recognized in Japan. However, there is a possibility that the demand for the broadcasting interpreting, especially that of international news program is diminishing. This paper firstly proves this possibility by examining the number of international news program which was broadcast between 1987 and 2003. Secondly, based on the author’s experience in BBC Japanese Unit, this paper tries to prove that the advent of multi-channel broadcast does not enhance the demand for broadcasting interpreting. Lastly, this paper presents long-range prospects of broadcasting interpreting of the international news program.

Shibahara Tomoyuki, .”Broadcast Interpreting -- the Changing Demands and Future Prospects.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 70-82.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Report on the Deposition Interpreting Class at the Monterey Institute of International Studies
TAKEDA Kayoko

ABSTRACT
Interpreting at depositions and other proceedings in civil litigation represents a significant segment of the Japanese interpreting market in the United States. There is also a solid need for interpreters at depositions taken in Japan. However, there seems to be no formal training course designed for this specialized field of interpreting. This paper describes the deposition interpreting class which has been offered experimentally as part of the advanced consecutive interpretation courses in the Japanese Program of the Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation at the Monterey Institute of International Studies (GSTI/MIIS). The main objectives of this three-session class are to acquire general knowledge of legal procedures, terminology and professional protocol, and to study basic interpreting strategies for depositions. In light of the demand in the markets, and based on feedback from students and graduates, not only should these sessions be continued, but considerations should also be given to their further development to cover a wider scope of legal interpreting in the future. 

TAKEDA Kayoko, “A Report on the Deposition Interpreting Class at the Monterey Institute of International Studies.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 83-102.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Methodology in Judicial Interpreter and Translator Training: A Case of the Graduate School of Osaka University of Foreign Studies
NISHIMATSU Suzumi

ABSTRACT
The Graduate School of Osaka University of Foreign Studies is currently offering, as the first of its kind in Japan, 8 classes under “Inter-lingual Interpreting and Translation Studies” and “Judicial Interpreting and Translation.” They focus on the very specific area of the profession that includes both police investigation and public prosecutors’ investigation. In the course of the current curriculum, three mock-investigation sessions with students acting as interpreters were conducted. This paper reports on these experiences chronologically and analytically in an attempt to find out more effective ways of carrying out such training classes, where legal practitioners and the university jointly participate. Considering the possibility that some of the students will be in future “active interpreters” or “coordinators” of the interpreting and translation services, the paper concludes with some practical suggestions.

NISHIMATSU Suzumi, “Methodology in Judicial Interpreter and Translator Training: A Case of the Graduate School of Osaka University of Foreign Studies.” 
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 103-121.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Interpreting and Translation in Japan’s Ministry of Justice: Diversity  and Potentials
WATANABE Yukiko

ABSTRACT
In recent years, as the number of crimes related to non-Japanese speaking people in Japan is increasing, the importance of judicial interpreters and translators is growing. Court interpreting and police interpreting are gradually being recognized as the kinds of judicial practice among the pubic, but most people are not aware that there are also a variety of interpreting and translation services in the Ministry of Justice. This paper shows the diversity of such needs that are necessary for the major sectors of the Ministry such as Public Prosecutors’ Office, Correction Bureau, Rehabilitation Bureau, Human Rights Protection Office, and Immigration Bureau. The administration of these institutions is closely related with each other. Therefore, this study focuses on the demand for and the actual conditions of the scenes of interpreting and translation services in the Ministry and points out relevant issues.

WATANABE, Yukiko, “Interpreting and Translation in Japan’s Ministry of Justice: Diversity  and Potentials.”
Interpretation Studies, No. 3, December 2003, pages 122-135.
(c) 2003 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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