Last Revised: December 5, 2002


ABSTRACT
 
[論文]
Non-Japanese Speaking Suspects/Defendants and the Criminal Justice System in Japan
   TSUDA Mamoru . . . 1
Cognitive Tags in Simultaneous Interpretation
   FUNAYAMA Chuta . . . 15
Proper Names in the Media: Problems for Translators/Interpreters and L2 Learners
   HANAOKA Osamu . . . 28
同時通訳における照応関係の構築:指示表現「そういう」をてがかりに認知語用論的観点からの統一的説明
   南津 佳広 . . . 43
日本語-手話同時通訳における作業内容の分析:日本語から手話への変換作業を中心に
   白澤 麻弓 . . . 63
AVT としての通訳と今後の課題
   光藤 京子 . . . 87
but をとおして見る報道文の談話構造
   田邊 希久子 . . . 99
[研究ノート]
日本の翻訳: 変化の表れた1970年代
   古野 ゆり . . . 114
[実践報告]
逐次通訳演習における教室内でのペアワークの効果
   池田 和子 . . . 123
応用科学技術大学における通訳授業の考察
   王 珠恵 . . . 145
[報告]
国際翻訳家連盟(FIT)第16回世界大会報告
   鳥飼 玖美子 . . . 161
「通訳教授法ワークショップ 2002」 報告
   鶴田 知佳子 . . . 166
[第3回年次大会報告] 
講演: リスニング力向上におけるシャドーイングの効果について
  玉井 健 . . . 178
シンポジウム: シャドーイングの有効性をめぐって--外国語教育と通訳教育の視点から 
  玉井 健 ・ 西村 友美 ・ 田中 深雪 ・ 船山 仲他(司会) . . . 193
シャドーイングをめぐる議論についての私見:シンポジウム報告の補足
   田中 深雪 . . . 211

[各種お知らせ]
 原稿募集のお知らせ
 第4回年次大会のお知らせと発表募集
 通訳学会への入会申し込み
 日本通訳学会規約
 投稿規定
 編集後記

  ----------------------------------------------------------------
  [編集委員/Editorial Board]
   染谷 泰正  (SOMEYA Yasumasa, Editor-in-chief)
   水野 的  (MIZUNO Akira, Associate Editor)
   永田 小絵  (NAGATA Sae, Associate Editor) 
   マイケル・ガーナー (Michael Gurner, Associate Editor) 
  [Consulting Editors] 
    Daniel Gile, Peter Davidson, Robin Setton, Ryoko Winter
  [査読委員/Referees] 
  9名(氏名非公開/ Anonymous)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------

  (発行日:2002年12月10日)
 
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Non-Japanese Speaking Suspects/Defendants and the Criminal Justice System in Japan
TSUDA Mamoru 

ABSTRACT
Over the last two decades, Japan's justice system has seen a tremendous change because of the increase of non-Japanese speaking suspects, defendants, witnesses and victims, especially in the criminal procedure. The number of cases that required interpreters and translators so increased in the early part of the last two decades that literally anybody who spoke a foreign language and Japanese were appointed by the Police Headquarters, the Bar Association, the Public Prosecutors' Offices, the Courts, and the Prisons. While there have been substantial improvements in the recruiting, training and listing of the interpreters by these institutions of justice, they remained uncoordinated with each other, and thus the mechanism and standards have not been standardized at all. There is no system in Japan for certifying interpreters or translators in this field, or for monitoring the quality and ethics of these people. This paper intends to describe and critically analyze this situation not only from a practitioner's point of view but also from the perspective of international comparison.

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 1-14.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Cognitive Tags in Simultaneous Interpretation
FUNAYAMA Chuta

ABSTRACT
This paper proposes the notion of cognitive tag and a processing model of simultaneous interpretation (SI) using that notion. A cognitive tag, or c-tag, is typically evoked by some linguistic expression and assigned to a cognitive object, which is to become gradually enriched as discourse develops. A relation c-tag, one of the two proposed types of c-tag, holds a semantic relation among entities, each of which has an entity c-tag attached. A relation c-tag has more than one slot to be filled with an entity c-tag. In this model such coupling constitutes the backbone of speech comprehension and serves as the structural basis of SI at the cognitive level, which is free from idiosyncratic lexical constraints. Authentic SI records are examined to show the validity of the proposed theory. 

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 15-27.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Proper Names in the Media: Problems for Translators/Interpreters and L2 Learners
HANAOKA Osamu

ABSTRACT
This paper seeks to identify the nature of problems that proper names pose for translators/interpreters and L2 learners. First, I examine some grammatical traits of proper names as they appear in the media. Then, drawing in particular on Hirsch (1987, 1993) and the results of a small survey, I discuss the problems of proper names from a schema-theoretical viewpoint. Specifically, the discussion includes two types of knowledge regarding proper names, the nature of schemata associated with names, and the range of names that translators/interpreters and L2 learners need to deal with. Finally, I distinguish the types of strategies that are relevant to both translators/interpreters and L2 learners and those that uniquely concern translators/interpreters. 

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 28-42.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Cognitive-Pragmatic Account of Demonstratives in Simultaneous Interpretation -- the case of souiu.
MINAMITSU Yoshihiro

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we discuss what information a simultaneous interpreter adds by inserting Japanese demonstrative pronoun "souiu," and claim that its fundamental function is to mark the following noun (phrase) as reformulation of its antecedent. Although most existing accounts of demonstratives in interpreting and translation only deal with the case in which antecedents are identified by the degree of cohesion and talk about the equivalent to be achieved between SL and TL, some demonstratives, like bridging reference in English, do not contribute to cohesion in the source language. In our theory the notion of securing meaningfulness (Funayama 2000) plays a crucial role. Furthermore, using, as a point of departure, Gutt's definition of translation as interpretation of interpretation, we will define simultaneous interpreting as a kind of metarepresentation from a Relevance-theoretic viewpoint. We will argue that the kind of "souiu" inserted by the interpreter is better analyzed as encoding procedural information, guiding his/her hearer to identify the antecedent.

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 43-62.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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An Analysis of Interpreting from Japanese to Sign Language
SHIRASAWA Mayumi

ABSTRACT
This paper examined how sign-language interpreters translate Japanese to sign language in terms of interpreting strategies they use in their performance. The results showed, among other things, that "Intended Omission" occurred about thirty to sixty times in each interpreter's performance and that the amount of indented omission tends to increase when interpreters work under constraints. It was also found that less experienced interpreters tend to replace difficult lexical items with easier ones. The rewording to a subordinate concept usually led to lucid translation, but the rewording to a superordinate concept easily resulted in ambiguous translation. The "Addition" strategy was mostly used to make clear and visible what are not uttered but implied in the source language. Experienced interpreters usually borrowed terms from Japanese to make clear which word was used in the original sentence, but less experienced interpreters borrowed Japanese when they didn’t know how they could express a certain word or concept in sign language. The study also showed that sign-language interpreters can be classified into three types in terms of their dominant interpreting strategy; i.e. the Omission type, the Rewording type, and the Compression type.

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 63-86.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Interpreting as Audio-Vidual Translation (AVT) 
MITSUFUJI Kyoko

ABSTRACT
In today's world where multi-media communication plays an important role and there are various forms of translation, it seems less meaningful merely to compare interpretation versus translation, which is, the oral process versus the written one. It is more pertinent to distinguish interpretation as a multi-channel communication including dubbing, subtitling, etc. from the written form of translation. The former deals with fleeting texts and is somehow affected by non-verbal information involved in the original. This paper defines interpretation as an Audiovisual Translation (AVT) and discusses how much relevance non-verbal information has on the interpreters' performance and how this relatively new idea should be reflected in future interpreter training. 

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 87-98. 
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Discourse Structure of English Newsreports as seen from an Analysis of Discourse Connective 'but'
TANABE Kikuko

ABSTRACT
This paper analyses the discourse structure of newsreports in English through an analysis of the discourse connective 'but.' Its goal is to make it easier for Japanese translators, interpreters and students to understand and translate the rhetoric of English newsreports. The connective's meanings and discoursal functions have been dealt with in many preceding papers. This paper refers to the discourse structure model of newspaper editorials cited in Bolivar (1994) and, making use of her triad model, compares the connective's rhetorical functions in newsreports and novels, in order to show the function of but as an tool to present writer's evaluation within the three-part argumentative structure.

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 99-113.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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Japanese translation in the 1970s: A transitional period
FURUNO Yuri

ABSTRACT
This paper investigates changes in the attitudes of translators towards faithfulness to the original text and towards the readability of non-fiction English-Japanese translations in Japan during the 1970s. Specifically, it adopts the framework of translation norms proposed by Gideon Toury (1995), who advocates a socio-cultural approach to translation and focuses on the initial norms of 'acceptability' and 'adequacy.' Although Japanese translators had previously been more concerned with fidelity and literal translation, from the 1970s onward they were becoming more concerned with conforming to Japanese cultural and linguistic norms, perhaps in response to changing expectations towards translations on the part of readers. This trend of adhering to ‘acceptability’ continued to gain increasing popularity into the following decades, although the older norm of ‘adequacy’ still persisted.

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 114-122.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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The Effects of Pair Work in the Consecutive Training Classroom
IKEDA Kazuko

ABSTRACT
Pair work is a common and effective classroom activity used by teachers in language learning classrooms. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of using pair work when implemented in consecutive interpretation training. In traditional teacher-centered classrooms, the instructor calls on each student-interpreter to perform and give feedback following a rendition, which limits the amount of turns per student. When consecutive interpretation is practiced through pair work, students will be able to have more turns. If they can receive quality peer feedback during these exercises, the utilization of pair work activities in a consecutive interpretation course can be effective. This research paper will compare the quality of students’ consecutive interpretation before and following the usage of pair work activities.

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 123-144. 
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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A Report on the Interpretation Program at the National Kaohshiung First Technology University
WANG chu-hui

ABSTRACT
have been teaching interpretation (oral translation) at the National Kaohshiung First Technology University. The aim of my department is to train students in their second language expertise. Most of my students have been studying Japanese for 3 to 5 years since junior college. In Taiwan, the pedagogy of Japanese does not start until college or university, and students start with the basics. Consequently, it is difficult to teach interpreting skills in the junior and senior years. Nevertheless, I believe that interpreting skills can be used to enhance their ability in the acquisition of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and translating/interpreting skills. On this pretext, I wish to discuss the outcome of having taught my students interpreting skills to enhance their abilities to speak, listen, read, and write in Japanese after a year of instruction.  I hope that language teachers in Taiwan will be able to develop a comprehensive foreign language curriculum that is tailored to the language needs of Taiwan, so as to train language specialists that will meet the demands of the society.

Interpretation Studies, No. 2, December 2002, pages 145-160.
(c) 2002 by the Japan Association for Interpretation Studies

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(c) 2002 Japan Association for Interpretation Studies (文責:染)