Table of Contents ( Japanese articles, English articles; Abstracts are in English)
Obituary -- Danica Seleskovitch KONDO Masaomi .
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Call for Papers . . . 148
vs. Simultaneous: Which is more accurate?
The relative accuracy of simultaneous vs. consecutive interpreting with respect to specific difficulties (false starts, incomplete sentences, unimportant modifiers, elements without direct "equivalents" in the target language, digressions) predicted by the Effort Models was partially assessed by a comparison of simultaneous and consecutive renderings of the same English speech into French by 10 interpreters in each mode. As predicted, consecutive was found superior in incomplete sentences, and simultaneous was superior as regards digressions and unimportant modifiers. With respect to overall accuracy, simultaneous was clearly superior to consecutive in this study, but methodological considerations call for caution when generalizing.
Interpretation Studies, No.
1, December 2001.
Sight Translation: Functions and Techniques
This paper refers to the methodical process of sight translation as "generalized interpretation guidelines," while the sight translation issues peculiar to individual languages are referred to as "individual rules." Under the "generalized interpretation guidelines," the utilization of interpreting principles, skills, and strategy is explored in three aspects: techniques in dealing with the target text prior to sight translation, effort allocation, and efficiency of interpretation. The concept of automatic transcoding mechanism is introduced as regards the issue of efficiency of interpretation. As for the "individual rules," two syntactic linearity techniques -- simultaneous and stepping-stone methods -- are proposed for the processing of Japanese texts with kanji characters.
Interpretation Studies, No.
1, December 2001.
Explicitation Strategies in the Japanese edition of Newsweek
This paper analyzed an article from the Japanese edition of Newsweek to compare the explicitation strategies with those in the PBS NewsHour sample analyzed in Hanaoka (2000). The instances of explicitation were divided into the same categories as those used in the previous study and were also divided into linguistic and extralinguistic types. Based on differences in the two modes of translation, two hypotheses were put forward: (1) more instances of explicitation will be identified in the Newsweek sample, and (2) more instances of extralinguistic explicitation will be identified in the Newsweek sample. The results of the analysis supported both of these hypotheses. It was also found that the ratio of extralinguistic to linguistic explicitation was higher in the Newsweek sample. This paper also discussed possible forms of explicitation involving metaphors and the role of parentheses as a tool of explicitation.
Interpretation Studies, No.
1, December 2001.
Cultural equivalence: its effectiveness and complications -- Has "white gloves" achieved the equivalent effect of "shiro tabi"?
One of the difficulties in translation is to translate culture-specific words or concepts. This paper explores the issue of "equivalent effect" by cultural substitution, focusing especially on its effectiveness by analysing its advantages and disadvantages in literary texts. Two examples are investigated, both from Donald Keene's translation of Shayo by Osamu Dazai. Although the examples discussed in this paper are limited, this study suggests that both benefits and difficulties result from cultural substitution. As is often said, there is no perfect translation. However, when making a decision in translating culture-specific words or concepts, the benefits and difficulties of cultural substitution should be taken into consideration, as it may prove a useful technique in some context.
No. 1, December 2001.
Analysis of Interpreting into the Second Language
For Japanese interpreters, interpreting into English (or any other European
language) poses particular challenge. This is because, for most of them,
English is the second language which they have acquired through conscious
learning. This study aims at exploring and analyzing problems brought about
by this challenge and tries to identify strategies to overcome these problems
in order to obtain acceptable and reliable target language (TL) production.
Transcribed TL text data of 35 interpreters interpreting four speeches
in Japanese into English consecutively were first evaluated, and the results
were analyzed and compared using quantitative and qualitative parameters.
Quantitative parameters failed to show significant correlation with the
results of the evaluation. Then lexical and syntactic selections by the
subjects were analyzed. Many inappropriate selections were found, which
seem to reflect the language problems. Considerable variety was also observed
in the selection of lexical items, particularly verbs to correspond to
particular Japanese expressions. Syntactic differences between Japanese
and English posed considerable difficulties in the production of English
Design and Construction of Simultaneous Interpreting Corpus
MATSUBARA Shigeki, AIZAWA Yasuyuki, KAWAGUCHI Nobuo, TOYAMA Katsuhiko, and INAGAKI Yasuyoshi
This paper describes a large-scale spoken language corpus of simultaneous interpreting, which has been constructed at the Center for Integrated Acoustic Information Research (CIAIR), Nagoya University. The corpus, among other things, has the following characteristics: (1) English and Japanese speeches are recorded in parallel, (2) the data contain monologue and dialogue speeches, and (3) the exact beginning and ending times are provided for each utterance. We have collected a total of about 65 hours of speech data and transcribed them into ASCII text files (about 367,000 morphemes in 22,000 utterance units). This paper also outlines the software tools which we have developed for the investigation of the corpus. The corpus will be made publicly available in the near future.
The In-house Interpreting Environment: 'Issues galore'
This paper focuses on 3 real life issues relating to business interpreting in an in-house environment: interpreter integrity, the right to information, and hindered communication. These 3 issues were chosen as they are somewhat challenging and awkward with no easy solutions; but, on the other hand, if not addressed make life very difficult for the interpreter and in some cases could set a precedence in the in-house interpreting environment. The paper argues that the interpreter needs to be in charge in all interpreting situations to drive the meeting, and needs to uphold the principles of the art of interpreting while at the same time maintain interpreter integrity. Furthermore, in light of the fact that more and more foreign companies are 'doing deals' with Japanese companies, good interpreters could be said to be in demand. Hence, addressing these issues and maintaining the quality of the service is of utmost importance.
Issues on Interpreting in Australia and Japan
This essay, which summarizes a recent private talk this author had with Professor Kumiko Torikai of Rikkyo University, Japan, attempts to address some issues of interpreting in Australia and Japan. (1) We discussed the problem of the shortage of police and court interpreters for languages other than English in Japan. (2) We considered the possibility that the theory of interpreting developed in Australia, which gives an absolute priority to impartiality of interpreters and faithfulness of interpretation, may be adopted in Japan in certain areas such as legal interpreting. (3) We found out that both Japanese and Australian interpreters feel that their work is not recognized by society as highly as they wish. (4) We shared a concern that voluntary interpreting, which is practised extensively in Japan, has an adverse effect on the effort to enhance the status of interpreters. (5) In relation to achieving a status for interpreters comparable to other professionals, we agreed that interpreting should be taught for a university degree with further study at postgraduate level in specialized areas like conference, legal and medical interpreting, including research in interpreting. We realized that Japan and Australia, with strengths and weaknesses in different areas of interpreting, can learn a lot from each other.
The following is a report on the Diploma in Translation, a qualifying examination administered by the Institute of Linguists in the U.K. The author took this exam in November 2000, and gives an account of this examination.
A Summary of MA Thesis: Terminology of the Japanese Patent System in an International Context
The following is a summary of the Master's thesis entitled Terminology of the Japanese Patent System in an International Context, which the author submitted to the Department of Translation and Interpreting, University of Vienna, on September 2000, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Translation. The aim of this thesis is to provide a general survey of the Japanese patent system and to offer terminological equivalents in German and Japanese for this specific field. Today, in the age of globalization, patent applicants often seek a patent protection all over the world. Accordingly, a non-negligible amount of Japanese patent documents are translated into other languages and vice versa, not only for the purpose of investigating the state of art but also for patent infringement cases. However, the patent system is built upon national patent law. Therefore, differences between the systems of each country remain, despite the international harmonization process mainly effected by the three leading patent offices (JPO, USPTO and EPO). This thesis analyzes terms, points out differences in their meanings, and provides concrete translation proposals for specific terms used in the Japanese patent system.
(c) 2001 Japan Association for Interpretation Studies (YS)